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In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses. Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.
In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur. On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake.
Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:. The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game. In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Set-up and rules the same as backgammon.
A game which starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line-on point and on point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.
In long nardi one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board.
There is no doubling cube. As today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two blots , checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.
The ancient Egyptian game senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and they create a lively atmosphere.
The game is called "Tavli", derived in Byzantine times from the Latin word "tabula". Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. A game where one checker by itself can block a point.
Also known as Acey-deucey where all checkers are off the board, and you enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey.
These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points. Players use the same pair of dice in turns. After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first.
In Japan ban-sugoroku is thought to have been introduced from China in the 6th century. As a gambling game it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
The jeux de tables Games of Tables , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.
In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.
A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers. Some surviving artworks are " Cardsharps " by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and " The Triumph of Death " by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.
In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.
In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English " gamen ", meaning "game" or "play".
The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.
The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".
He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March, , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.
Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion.
Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Backgammon film. A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, The picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of World Backgammon champions. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin.
New Series 1 9: Backgammon for Winners Third ed. Morehead and Geoffrey Mott-Smith. Backgammon for Serious Players Second ed.
Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 13 September Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 13 March The three games together are called 'Tavli' and are usually played one after the other in matches of three, five, or seven points An exposure of the arts and miseries of gambling.
The Daily Telegraph Australia. Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 6 March Communications of the ACM. Archived from the original on 25 February The Journal of Hellenic Studies.
Vyzantinon Vios kai Politismos. New Series 4 7: Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 13 August The University of Texas at Austin.
The New York Times. A disk and dice game that has been played in Middle Eastern streets for thousands of years, in English homes for hundreds of years, and on Bronx stoops for dozens of years has suddenly gripped the bankers and brokers of old-line men's clubs all over town.
This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Backgammon " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Acey-deucey Gul bara Plakoto Sugoroku Tapa.
Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: It is a marker, instead of a die. The opponent must either accept th doubled stake or resign to defeat immediately thus ending the game.
The option to redouble belongs exclusively to the player who accepted the double. Technically, the game can be doubled up to 64 times the score, but it rarely goes beyond 4.
If the "double" is declined, the doubler wins however many points the doubling cube is showing 1 x doubling cube. If the game is played, the resulting score will then be multiplied by the doubling cube number.
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Do you have what it takes to beat the best backgammon players around the world? Play Backgammon Narde free!This little die adds a lot of fun strategy to the game. Google Play's top ranked Backgammon! Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: We recommend trying it on for size! A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race. A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of baden baden casino öffnungszeiten checkers, two pairs tavla spielen dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups. Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. Backgammon for Winners Third ed. The players then take alternate turns, leovegas book of dead two dice at the beginning of each turn. Account Options Sign in. Intentionally leave some checkers back casino slots spielen kostenlos try and streamhunter tennis the opponent off the board as they make a run for their home territory! If the players roll the same number, they must roll again. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Casino royal online subtitrat rulenamed after Tim Hollandwhich stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side. Nackgammon is freie casino spiele variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players eingibst with one wm 2019 ball checker on the six Beste Spielothek in Kibitzhorn finden and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.
Backgammon Plus is designed for fans of games such as backgammon, tavle, tawla, tavli, gammon, nackgammon, shesh besh, mahbusa, narde, tapa, acey-deucey, gul bara, portes, plakoto and fevga.
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Five Nights at Freddy's. The objective of the game is to be first to bear off , i. Backgammon is a member of the tables family, one of the oldest classes of board games.
Backgammon involves a combination of strategy and luck from rolling dice. While the dice may determine the outcome of a single game, the better player will accumulate the better record over series of many games, somewhat like poker.
The optional use of a doubling cube allows players to raise the stakes during the game. Like chess , backgammon has been studied with great interest by computer scientists.
Owing to this research, backgammon software has been developed that is capable of beating world-class human players see TD-Gammon for an example.
Backgammon playing pieces are known variously as checkers, draughts , stones, men, counters , pawns, discs, pips, chips, or nips.
The objective is to remove bear off all of one's own checkers from the board before one's opponent can do the same. In the most often-played variants the checkers are scattered at first; as the game progresses they may be blocked or hit by the opponent.
As the playing time for each individual game is short, it is often played in matches where victory is awarded to the first player to reach a certain number of points.
Each side of the board has a track of 12 long triangles, called points. The points form a continuous track in the shape of a horseshoe , and are numbered from 1 to In the most commonly used setup, each player begins with fifteen checkers, two are placed on their point, three on their 8-point, and five each on their point and their 6-point.
The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point. Points 1 through 6 are called the home board or inner board, and points 7 through 12 are called the outer board.
The 7-point is referred to as the bar point, and the point as the midpoint. To start the game, each player rolls one die, and the player with the higher number moves first using the numbers shown on both dice.
If the players roll the same number, they must roll again. Both dice must land completely flat on the right-hand side of the gameboard. The players then take alternate turns, rolling two dice at the beginning of each turn.
After rolling the dice, players must, if possible, move their checkers according to the number shown on each die. For example, if the player rolls a 6 and a 3 denoted as "" , the player must move one checker six points forward, and another or the same checker three points forward.
The same checker may be moved twice, as long as the two moves can be made separately and legally: If a player rolls two of the same number, called doubles, that player must play each die twice.
For example, a roll of allows the player to make four moves of five spaces each. On any roll, a player must move according to the numbers on both dice if it is at all possible to do so.
If one or both numbers do not allow a legal move, the player forfeits that portion of the roll and his or her turn ends. If moves can be made according to either one die or the other, but not both, the higher number must be used.
If one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory. In the course of a move, a checker may land on any point that is unoccupied or is occupied by one or more of the player's own checkers.
It may also land on a point occupied by exactly one opposing checker, or "blot". In this case, the blot has been "hit", and is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface.
A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers; thus, no point is ever occupied by checkers from both players simultaneously.
Checkers placed on the bar must re-enter the game through the opponent's home board before any other move can be made.
A roll of 1 allows the checker to enter on the point opponent's 1 , a roll of 2 on the point opponent's 2 , and so forth, up to a roll of 6 allowing entry on the point opponent's 6.
Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on unoccupied points, or on points occupied by a single opposing checker; in the latter case, the single checker is hit and placed on the bar.
More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board.
If the opponent's home board is completely "closed" i. When all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them; this is called "bearing off".
A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player may use that die to bear off one checker from the highest occupied point.
When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.
For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.
As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice, by moving checkers within the home board or bearing them off, the player must do so.
If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes.
If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers and has some on the bar or in the winner's home board, the winner scores a backgammon , which counts for triple stakes.
To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used.
The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled but rather a marker with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides, to denote the current stake.
At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".
When the cube is centered, the player about to roll may propose that the game be played for twice the current stakes. Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately.
Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to the player who last accepted a double.
For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.
There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.
In money games, a player is often permitted to " beaver " when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.
A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the " raccoon ". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.
The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.
Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.
The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.
When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e.
The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments. The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.
This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.
The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.
If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.
Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.
After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.
Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.
A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.
There are also different starting positions. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.
The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.Neuer Kommentar Ihr Name. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Wer sich schlagen lässt, verliert bei Backgammon also wertvolle Zeit. Hat der Sieger alle Steine abgetragen und der Gegner zu diesem Zeitpunkt mindestens einen eigenen Stein herausgewürfelt, verliert man einfach oder eben Single game. Das Spielbrett hat verschiedene Bereiche: Bereits die Römer spielten einen Vorgänger mit drei Würfeln. Er bevorzugt kurzweilige Spiele, gerne auch mit Würfeln. Wenn nun der Spieler mit dem Würfel im weiteren Verlauf zur Meinung gelangt, dass er die Partie gewinnen wird, kann er seinerseits, dem Gegner den Dopplerwürfel anbieten. Hat dir diese Anleitung zu Backgammon gefallen? Kann mit einem Wurf kein Stein ausgespielt werden, so muss der Wurf im Heimfeld gezogen werden.